From Wikipedia: New Urbanism is an urban
design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by
neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types.
It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has gradually
influenced many aspects of real
estate development, urban
planning, and municipal land-use
New Urbanism is strongly influenced by urban design practices that
were prominent until the rise of the automobile prior to World
War II; it encompasses ten basic principles such as traditional
neighborhood design (TND) and transit-oriented
These ideas can all be circled back to two concepts: building a sense of
community and the development of ecological practices.
The organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New
Urbanism, founded in 1993. Its foundational text is the Charter of
the New Urbanism, which begins:
We advocate the restructuring of public policy and development
practices to support the following principles: neighborhoods should be
diverse in use and population; communities should be designed for the
pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities and towns should be
shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public spaces
and community institutions; urban places should be framed by
architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history,
and building practice.
New Urbanists support: regional
planning for open space; context-appropriate architecture
and planning; adequate provision of infrastructure such as sporting
facilities, libraries and community centres;
and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their
strategies can reduce traffic congestion by encouraging the population
to ride bikes, walk, or take the train. They also hope that this set up
will increase the supply of affordable housing and rein in suburban
sprawl. The Charter
of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic
preservation, safe streets, green
building, and the re-development of brownfield
land. The ten Principles
of Intelligent Urbanism also phrase guidelines for new urbanist
Architecturally, new urbanist developments are often accompanied by New
styles, although that is not always the case.
New Urbanists make placemaking and public space
a high priority. New Urbanist streets are designed for
people—rather than just cars—and accommodate multimodal
transportation including walking, bicycling, transit use, and driving.
We believe in providing plazas, squares, sidewalks, cafes, and porches
to host daily interaction and public life.
New Urbanism is pragmatic. Great design is not
useful if it can't be built. New Urbanists work with and include
production builders, small developers, traffic engineers, appraisers and
financial institutions, public officials, citizens and others with
influence over the built environment to come up with implementable
New Urbanism is
focused on design, which is critical to the function of
size and shape of a plaza will help determine whether it is consistently
alive with people or windswept and vacant. The organization of buildings
in a neighborhood will help establish its character. Combining
appropriate design elements makes places that are greater than the sum
of their parts.
New Urbanism is holistic. All scales, from the
metropolitan region to the single building, are related. A building that
is connected to a transit stop will help the region function better, and
well-organized region benefits the buildings within it. Streets that
rely only on engineering tend to move automobiles and little else; all
disciplines related to the built environment must work together to
create great places.
Reclaiming underutilized and neglected places is a special
focus of New Urban design and building. Through the federal
HOPE VI and Choice Neighborhoods programs, for example, New Urbanism has
transformed deteriorating public housing into livable mixed-income
neighborhoods. Commercial strips with single-use development and
excessive asphalt are transformed into lively main streets or boulevards
through new urban design.
Above all, New Urbanism is about creating sustainable,
human-scaled places where people can live healthy and happy lives.
The walkable, vibrant, beautiful places that New Urbanists build work
better for businesses, local governments, and their residents. Anyone
that works to create, restore, or protect a great place can join in the
New Urbanism movement.
New Urbanism is a planning and development approach based on the
principles of how cities and towns had been built for the last several
centuries: walkable blocks and streets, housing and shopping in close
proximity, and accessible public spaces. In other words: New
Urbanism focuses on human-scaled urban design.
The principles, articulated in the Charter
of the New Urbanism, were developed to offer alternatives to
the sprawling, single-use, low-density patterns typical of post-WWII
development, which have been shown to inflict negative economic, health,
and environmental impacts on communities.
These design and development principles can be applied to new
development, urban infill and revitalization, and preservation. They
can be applied to all scales of development in the full range of places
including rural Main Streets, booming suburban areas, urban
neighborhoods, dense city centers, and even entire regions.
New Urbanists want to see those human-scale neighborhoods
return. We create tools to reform zoning and street design and
develop underutilized building types—like shopfront houses and
courtyard units—that contribute to diverse neighborhoods. We advocate
for villages, towns, and cities consisting of neighborhoods designed
around a five-minute walk from center to edge. These ideas are
fundamental to New Urbanist thinking.
PRINCIPLES OF NEW URBANISM
The principles of New Urbanism can be applied increasingly to
projects at the full range of scales from a single building to
an entire community.
-Most things within a 10-minute walk of home and work
-Pedestrian friendly street design (buildings close to street;
porches, windows & doors; tree-lined streets; on street
parking; hidden parking lots; garages in rear lane; narrow, slow
-Pedestrian streets free of cars in special cases
-Interconnected street grid network disperses traffic &
-A hierarchy of narrow streets, boulevards, and alleys
-High quality pedestrian network and public realm makes walking
3. Mixed-Use & Diversity
-A mix of shops, offices, apartments, and homes on site.
Mixed-use within neighborhoods, within blocks, and within
-Diversity of people - of ages, income levels, cultures, and
4. Mixed Housing
A range of types, sizes and prices in closer proximity
5. Quality Architecture & Urban
Emphasis on beauty, aesthetics, human comfort, and creating a
sense of place; Special placement of civic uses and sites within
community. Human scale architecture & beautiful surroundings
nourish the human spirit
6. Traditional Neighborhood Structure
-Discernable center and edge
-Public space at center
-Importance of quality public realm; public open space designed
as civic art
-Contains a range of uses and densities within 10-minute walk
-Transect planning: Highest densities at town center;
progressively less dense towards the edge. The transect is an
analytical system that conceptualizes mutually reinforcing
elements, creating a series of specific natural habitats and/or
urban lifestyle settings. The Transect integrates environmental
methodology for habitat assessment with zoning methodology for
community design. The professional boundary between the natural
and man-made disappears, enabling environmentalists to assess
the design of the human habitat and the urbanists to support the
viability of nature. This urban-to-rural transect hierarchy has
appropriate building and street types for each area along the
information on the transect
7. Increased Density
-More buildings, residences, shops, and services closer
together for ease of walking, to enable a more efficient use of
services and resources, and to create a more convenient,
enjoyable place to live.
-New Urbanism design principles are applied at the full range of
densities from small towns, to large cities
8. Smart Transportation
-A network of high-quality trains connecting cities, towns, and
-Pedestrian-friendly design that encourages a greater use of
bicycles, rollerblades, scooters, and walking as daily
-Minimal environmental impact of development and its operations
-Eco-friendly technologies, respect for ecology and value of
-Less use of finite fuels
-More local production
-More walking, less driving
10. Quality of Life
Taken together these add up to a high quality of life well worth
living, and create places that enrich, uplift, and inspire the
Revitalization Zone Strategic Plan Guidelines
Version: Word PDF
This document is a guideline for communities that are considering
developing strategic plans as required under the Neighborhood
Revitalization Zone (NRZ) legislation (Connecticut
General Statutes, Sections 7-6-- through 7-607).
Under the Connecticut legislation which established NRZs, the state
Office of Policy and Management (OPM) is charged with the responsibility
of reviewing NRZ strategic plans. To ensure that the plans we receive
are comprehensive and consistent with the intent of the legislation, we
have designed this document to interpret the law in an easy-to-read
manner and to describe the basic components which should be included in
the strategic plan.
This document is organized as a series of questions and answers that
reflect the kinds of questions that neighborhoods may have about NRZs.
We have attempted to anticipate your questions about NRZs and to provide
practical and useful answers. If you find that you have additional
questions that are not addressed here, please contact Bruce
Wittchen by email at firstname.lastname@example.org or
by phone at (860) 418-6323.
What are Neighborhood Revitalization Zones or NRZs?
In 1995, An Act Establishing a Neighborhood Revitalization Zone
Process (P.A. 95-340) was passed by the Connecticut General Assembly and
signed into law by Governor Rowland. This law -- the first of its kind
in the nation -- established a collaborative process for communities to
work with all levels of government to revitalize neighborhoods which
have become substandard, unsafe and blighted. Amended in 1999(PA 99-35),
the law now addresses how amendments to the strategic plan are done.
NRZs represent a new kind of partnership and cooperation between
communities and government which shifts the impetus of planning to the
local level and provides a mechanism for relief from burdensome state
and local regulations.
The Office of Policy and Management and the Connecticut
Economic Development Fund (CEDF) have created a pool of matching
funds to support the NRZ program through technical assistance grants.
Assistance is provided in the form of consultant services and can be
used for the Economic Development section of an NRZ's Strategic Plan,
the development of studies and reports necessary for future development
projects, or the development of a specific development project. CEDF
engages such consultants and no funds go directly to local NRZs.
For further information about these mini-grants, contact David LeVasseur
of OPM at (860) 418-6484 or Donna Wertenbach of CEDF at (888) 835-2333,
To download the document, please select one of the available file
Format: Microsoft Word for Windows
File Type: (*.doc)
Length: 26 pages
File size: 56KB (uncompressed)
Click Here to Download: NRZ
Online Viewing Option: Microsoft WordViewer is a small
freeware application that enables users who do not own
Microsoft Word for Windows® to view and print Word documents exactly
as they appear in Word.
Click Here to Download: WordViewer
Format: Text File
File Type: (*.txt)
Length: 16 pages
File size: 36KB (uncompressed)
Click Here to Download: NRZ
For Further Information, Please Contact:
Bruce Wittchen: phone (860) 418-6323 - fax (860) 418-6486 -
Content Last Modified on
5/13/2013 3:28:36 PM
Resource Guide to
Concepts and Methods for Community-Based and Collaborative Problem
Marjory Ruderman, MHS
Women’s and Children’s
Health Policy Center
Johns Hopkins University
School of Public Health
The last two decades have
seen a sort of convergent evolution of concepts related to
community-based problem solving and the conditions necessary for
community health and well-being. Researchers of different disciplines
and orientations delineate constructs like community capacity, community
competence, community empowerment, and community readiness. All attempt
to capture at least some of the characteristics and resources that
enable communities to participate successfully in problem solving.
Coupled with these ideas are others related to community coalitions and
other collaborative strategies to promote community-driven change.
the proliferation of terms surrounding community-based initiatives and
community collaboratives are three basic principles:
1) a population, rather
than individual, approach to health promotion,
2) acknowledgement of the
effect of social environment on individual and population health status,
3) a recognition of the
importance of changing health and related service systems in order to
impact health status.1
Also central to most of these concepts is an assets-based approach to
understanding communities, one cognizant both of the resources and
skills a community brings to bear in addressing common needs and of the
importance of enhancing the community’s ability to mobilize those
This resource guide brings
together documents that contribute to the knowledge base about community
resources promoting effective problem solving and health systems change,
with a special emphasis on issues pertaining to the measurement of key
constructs. The literature consolidated here provides guidance on
assessing the community context to gauge:
1) how community context
will affect the development and success of initiatives, and, conversely,
2) how community-based
systems initiatives may influence community capacity. To understand the
potential effect of community context on a program, for example, a
pre-implementation assessment of community readiness for intervention
might provide important information for use in targeting resources and
activities. Gauging the effects of collaborative/interagency initiatives
on the community is a more complex endeavor; the literature as of yet
offers little guidance for linking specific collaborative initiatives to
population-based outcomes. This document summarizes recent progress in
developing process and outcome measures for use in examining community
collaboratives and documenting their impact.
This guide is organized
into several sections. Part One introduces key concepts related
to community-based program planning and evaluation, outlining the
various ways different authors have elaborated these concepts. In Part
Two, the sources included in this guide are matched to the concepts
they explore for easy identification of resources of interest to the
reader. An annotated bibliography of resources related to
community-based and collaborative problem solving follows. This
bibliography includes both references readily found in the research
literature and “fugitive” documents that might not otherwise come to
the reader’s attention. Part Three consists of expanded
summaries of selected resources from the annotated bibliography. The
resources chosen for expanded summary stand out as seminal works on
practice-oriented concepts and/or methodological tools. Finally, Part
Four lists internet resources that can serve as jumping off points
for explorations of a broad range of concepts and activities related to
community-based problem solving.
Publications were selected
for inclusion in this Resource Guide according to three criteria:
· Broadly applicable:
Concepts and methods are not limited to use with specific kinds of
initiatives (e.g., substance abuse prevention programs, community
· Practical: Includes
explicit descriptions of constructs or of measurement methods that can
be adapted for other, similar uses.
· Adding to the
knowledge base: Contributes to a broader understanding of key concepts
and/or how to measure them.
Publications that are not
included in this resource book are those that serve primarily as “how
to” guides, such as those that detail steps to building community
coalitions or mobilizing/empowering community members without also contributing
to or reviewing salient conceptual or methodological approaches.
However, all of the websites listed in Part Four provide access to
publications and other resources for technical assistance in
The Johns Hopkins
University Women’s and Children’s Health Policy Center (WCHPC)
compiled this literature while designing several studies currently
underway. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau asked the WCHPC to
develop this Resource Guide to make what has been learned by the faculty
and staff of the Center more readily accessible to local and state
maternal and child health professionals, whose work daily involves
aspects of the principles, concepts, and activities reviewed in this
document. As performance measurement issues continue to move to the
forefront of public health practice, access to this material may become
increasingly valuable to public health administrators and managers.
Constructing a Needs Map
The Needs Map
This is the blank map on which to record the needs of
the community. The problems and deficiencies that come up in a
workshop brainstorm can be loosely divided into three groups:
- People and Practices
- Local Associations and Institutions
- Business and Physical Resources
here to access a blank map sheet
A Needs Map for a Rural Community in Asia
Needs in a rural community
Victims and handouts
Every community can generate a long list of needs and problems. This figure
shows only a few. As more needs are added it is easy to start feeling
like a victim and demanding handouts to help address problems.
But is victimhood a good starting point for innovative
As a reflection exercise compare the mood of a workshop after
conducting a needs mapping and after conducting an assets mapping
and discuss the difference.
America’s legacy cities, once industrial powerhouses and hubs of
business, retail, and services, have been hit hard by suburbanization
and the loss of their manufacturing industries. Cities like Detroit,
Cleveland, and Pittsburgh have lost more than half of their peak
populations and are grappling with daunting social, physical, and
economic challenges. Although all legacy cities face similar
difficulties, each one is following a different trajectory.
While many continue to
struggle, some, like Pittsburgh or Philadelphia, have begun to regain
vitality and find new and productive economic roles.
Successful regeneration is
not about signature buildings or megaprojects, but about
multidimensional change to the cities’ physical environments, their
economic bases, and the social and economic condition of their residents
to ensure that lower income and minority groups also benefit from the
Legacy cities have many
assets, including vital downtowns, historic neighborhoods, vibrant
universities and medical centers, and rich cultural resources. To
regenerate they must capitalize on these assets by changing their
physical form to reflect a smaller population; restoring the city as a
center of export-oriented economic activity; building a more dynamic,
change-oriented approach to governance; and forging stronger regional
and metropolitan relationships.
Intentional strategies are
needed to unlock the potential of a city’s assets to make sustainable
The model of “strategic
incrementalism” begins with a shared vision of the city’s future
from which leaders can make incremental, tactical decisions that will
transform the status quo, while avoiding grandiose and unrealistic
Nine other integrated
strategies are recommended to foster change in legacy cities:
• Rebuild the central
• Sustain viable
neighborhoods through targeted investments.
• Repurpose vacant land
for new activities.
• Use assets to build
• Re-establish the
central economic role of the city.
• Use economic growth to
increase community and resident well-being.
• Build stronger local
governance capacity and partnerships.
• Increase the ties
between legacy cities and their regions.
• Rethink state and
federal policy toward legacy cities.
The decline of legacy
cities has occurred over many years. Their regeneration will take as
long, and will happen only by forging new policies and practices, and
through sustained efforts by the nonprofit, private, and public sectors